Wednesday 3 April 2013

The Two Olive Trees of Zechariah

Joshua the High Priest, depicted in Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum

We can find another key piece of scriptural evidence which may help to identify the Two Witnesses as the Angelic Pope and the Great Monarch, by studying the Book of Zechariah. Chapters 3-4 of the Book of Zechariah provide the primary basis for the background details of the Two Witnesses of Rev 11. It is here that we find the first biblical reference to these figures as the two olive trees that stand before the Lord of the whole earth. Only in the Book of Zechariah, these two olive trees are identified with two historical figures, from whom we can glean some additional information concerning the Two Witnesses - Joshua the High Priest and Zerubbabel. In identifying the Two Witnesses with Joshua the High Priest and Zerubbabel as detailed in the Book of Zechariah, the Apocalypse suggests that we should study this portion of the Bible in greater detail in order to flesh out a fuller picture of the personal attributes of these two end-time prophets.
Joshua (sometimes spelled Jeshua) was the first person to be chosen as High Priest at the end of the Babylonian captivity. After conquering the Babylonian Empire in 538BC, King Cyrus of Persia issued an edict declaring that the Jews were free to return to the land of Israel and rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem:

In the first year of Cyrus the king, Cyrus the king issued a decree: Concerning the house of God at Jerusalem, let the house be rebuilt, the place where sacrifices were offered, and let its foundations be retained. Its height shall be sixty cubits and its breadth sixty cubits, with three layers of great stones and one layer of timber. Let the cost be paid from the royal treasury. And also let the gold and silver vessels of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took out of the temple that is in Jerusalem and brought to Babylon, be restored and brought back to the temple that is in Jerusalem, each to its place. You shall put them in the house of God.”
(Ezra 6:3-5)

After King Cyrus had permitted the Jewish exiles in Babylon to return to Jerusalem, Joshua the High Priest travelled back to the Holy City along with Zerubbabel, who was appointed governor of the Persian province of Judah by King Darius I of Persia. Although Zerubbabel was the grandson of King Jehoiachin of Judah, and was thus the rightful heir to the Davidic throne, he could not ascend the kingship of Judah because its territory had been subsumed into the wider Achaemenid Persian Empire.  After Zerubbabel was made governor of Judah, he set about rebuilding the Temple in Jerusalem, which had been destroyed by King Nebuchadnezzar in 588BC. This is considered by biblical historians to be the beginning of the Second Temple Period, which lasted up to its destruction in 70AD.

Now the prophets, Haggai and Zechariah the son of Iddo, prophesied to the Jews who were in Judah and Jerusalem, in the name of the God of Israel who was over them. Then Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel and Jeshua the son of Jozadak arose and began to rebuild the house of God that is in Jerusalem, and the prophets of God were with them, supporting them.
(Ezra 5:1-2)

It will be worth studying how Joshua and Zerubbabel are presented in the relevant portion of the Book of Zechariah below, in order to gain a better insight into the respective roles of the Two Witnesses:

Then he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him. And the LORD said to Satan, “The LORD rebuke you, O Satan! The LORD who has chosen Jerusalem rebuke you! Is not this a brand plucked from the fire?” Now Joshua was standing before the angel, clothed with filthy garments. And the angel said to those who were standing before him, “Remove the filthy garments from him.” And to him he said, “Behold, I have taken your iniquity away from you, and I will clothe you with pure vestments.” And I said, “Let them put a clean turban on his head.” So they put a clean turban on his head and clothed him with garments. And the angel of the LORD was standing by.
 And the angel of the LORD solemnly assured Joshua, “Thus says the LORD of hosts: If you will walk in my ways and keep my charge, then you shall rule my house and have charge of my courts, and I will give you the right of access among those who are standing here. Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, you and your friends who sit before you, for they are men who are a sign: behold, I will bring my servant the Branch. For behold, on the stone that I have set before Joshua, on a single stone with seven eyes, I will engrave its inscription, declares the LORD of hosts, and I will remove the iniquity of this land in a single day. In that day, declares the LORD of hosts, every one of you will invite his neighbor to come under his vine and under his fig tree.”

And the angel who talked with me came again and woke me, like a man who is awakened out of his sleep. And he said to me, “What do you see?” I said, “I see, and behold, a lampstand all of gold, with a bowl on the top of it, and seven lamps on it, with seven lips on each of the lamps that are on the top of it. And there are two olive trees by it, one on the right of the bowl and the other on its left.” And I said to the angel who talked with me, “What are these, my lord?” Then the angel who talked with me answered and said to me, “Do you not know what these are?” I said, “No, my lord.” Then he said to me, “This is the word of the LORD to Zerubbabel: Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, says the LORD of hosts. Who are you, O great mountain? Before Zerubbabel you shall become a plain. And he shall bring forward the top stone amid shouts of ‘Grace, grace to it!’”
 Then the word of the LORD came to me, saying, “The hands of Zerubbabel have laid the foundation of this house; his hands shall also complete it. Then you will know that the LORD of hosts has sent me to you. For whoever has despised the day of small things shall rejoice, and shall see the plumb line in the hand of Zerubbabel.
 “These seven are the eyes of the LORD, which range through the whole earth.” Then I said to him, “What are these two olive trees on the right and the left of the lampstand?” And a second time I answered and said to him, “What are these two branches of the olive trees, which are beside the two golden pipes from which the golden oil is poured out?” He said to me, “Do you not know what these are?” I said, “No, my lord.” Then he said, “These are the two anointed ones who stand by the Lord of the whole earth.”

(Zech 3-4)

If we compare the above passage to Rev 11:8 below, we can see some immediate parallels:

Then I was given a measuring rod like a staff, and I was told, “Rise and measure the temple of God and the altar and those who worship there, but do not measure the court outside the temple; leave that out, for it is given over to the nations, and they will trample the holy city for forty-two months. And I will grant authority to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy for 1,260 days, clothed in sackcloth.”
 These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth. And if anyone would harm them, fire pours from their mouth and consumes their foes. If anyone would harm them, this is how he is doomed to be killed. They have the power to shut the sky, that no rain may fall during the days of their prophesying, and they have power over the waters to turn them into blood and to strike the earth with every kind of plague, as often as they desire.

(Rev 11:1-6)

In the above symbolic vision, the Book of Zechariah depicts Joshua the High Priest changing from the sullied garments of the exile in Babylon, to the pure vestments of the Jewish restoration. So by making a direct comparison between Joshua the High Priest and Zerubbabel with the Two Witnesses, the Book of Revelation suggests that these two end-time prophets would arise after a time of apostasy - which is symbolised in the Book of Zechariah by the captivity in Babylon. The length of the Babylonian captivity was prophetically announced by the prophet Jeremiah as a punishment which would last for a period of 70 years:

“Therefore thus says the LORD of hosts: Because you have not obeyed my words, behold, I will send for all the tribes of the north, declares the LORD, and for Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, my servant, and I will bring them against this land and its inhabitants, and against all these surrounding nations. I will devote them to destruction, and make them a horror, a hissing, and an everlasting desolation. Moreover, I will banish from them the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the grinding of the millstones and the light of the lamp. This whole land shall become a ruin and a waste, and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years. Then after seventy years are completed, I will punish the king of Babylon and that nation, the land of the Chaldeans, for their iniquity, declares the LORD, making the land an everlasting waste. I will bring upon that land all the words that I have uttered against it, everything written in this book, which Jeremiah prophesied against all the nations."
(Jer 25:8-13)

Counting backwards 70 years from when King Cyrus issued his decree allowing for the return of the Jews in 538BC, this would suggest that the period of God's punishment for Judah's apostasy began around the year 608/609BC. The date of 609BC is highly significant in this regard, since this was the year of the death of the good King Josiah of Judah, following the Battle of Megiddo. An event which would ultimately bring about the complete demise of the kingdom of Judah. The successors to Josiah, notably his sons Jehoiakim and Zedekiah, made a series of poor political allegiances that led to the sack of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar circa 598 and 588BC. So it appears that Jeremiah's prophecy of the 70 years of desolation should be counted from the events of the Battle of Megiddo in 609BC.

While the Book of Zechariah depicts Joshua the High Priest changing into the pure priestly vestments after a period of 70 years of desolation, the Book of Revelation describes the coming of the Two Witnesses in the immediate context of the prophecy of the abomination of desolation - when the Holy City would trampled under the feet of "gentiles" for a period of 1,260 days. We have previously noted how the 1,260 "days" equal 42 months, and that this period is one and the same as the "time, times and half a time" mentioned in the Book of Daniel and the Apocalypse. The "time, times and half a time" corresponds to the three and a half years of drought which was ended by Elijah's contest with the prophets of Baal on Mount Carmel. It also represents the period of 70 years of desolation
being "cut short", since 3.5 is one half of seven. During his eschatological discourse on the Mount of Olives, Christ had promised that the period of the abomination of desolation would be "cut short" for the sake of the elect:

 “So when you see the abomination of desolation spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains. Let the one who is on the housetop not go down to take what is in his house, and let the one who is in the field not turn back to take his cloak. And alas for women who are pregnant and for those who are nursing infants in those days! Pray that your flight may not be in winter or on a Sabbath. For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, and never will be. And if those days had not been cut short, no human being would be saved. But for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short.
(Matt 24:15-22)

On one (futurist) layer of interpretation, this period of the "abomination of desolation" can be equated with the time of the Great Apostasy, and the Three Days of Darkness foretold in various private revelations. The coming of the Angelic Pope to restore the Church after the Three Days of Darkness deliberately parallels the three hours of darkness descending upon Jerusalem during the Crucifixion (Mark 15:33), and the "new dawn" in the Resurrection of Jesus on the third day. In particular, it strongly echoes Christ's promise to rebuild the destroyed Temple (representing His Body) in "three days":

So the Jews said to him, “What sign do you show us for doing these things?” Jesus answered them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” The Jews then said, “It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days?” But he was speaking about the temple of his body. When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this, and they believed the Scripture and the word that Jesus had spoken.
(John 2:18-22)

Given that St. Paul describes the Church as the mystical body of Christ (e.g. 1Cor 12:12ff), it would seem that there is another layer of meaning behind Christ's promise to rebuild His Temple after "three days". We can find another important instance of a religious revival after "three days" in the Book of Hosea, which also echoes the Resurrection of Christ:

“Come, let us return to the LORD;
for he has torn us, that he may heal us;
he has struck us down, and he will bind us up.
After two days he will revive us;
on the third day he will raise us up,
that we may live before him.

(Hosea 6:1-2)

We can perhaps find some further significance here in that it seems that the beginning of the Second Pentecost can be traced back to the turn of the third millennium, which was marked by the Signs in the Sky described at the opening of the sixth seal. This recalls the words of St. Peter:

But do not overlook this one fact, beloved, that with the Lord one day is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.
(2 Peter 3:8)

The turn of the third millennium marks the dawn of the "third day" according to the words of St. Peter.
As Sr. Lorraine pointed out in the previous post, there may be an additional connection between the "three days" of the Resurrection and the time period of the 1,260 days by using gematria. Using isopsephy (the Greek version of gematria), the numerical value of the Greek word τριών (trion) "three" is 1,260. In isopsephy, the letter tau (t) equals 300, the letter rho (r) is 100, iota (i) 10,
omega (o) is 800, while the letter nu (n) equals 50. Added together, this gives the total of 1,260. So the period of the Great Apostasy/abomination of desolation is variously represented by "three days", 1,260 days, 42 months, or a "time, times and half a time" - which represents Jeremiah's 70 years being "cut short".

The Apocalypse informs us that the Two Witnesses come after the gentiles have trampled on the Holy City for the period of the abomination (given first as 42 "months"), and that their own ministry would last for the same amount of time (1,260 days):  ..."they will trample the holy city for forty-two months. And I will grant authority to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy for 1,260 days, clothed in sackcloth.” (Rev 11:2-3) So we can see a sharp division here, and that the Two Witnesses arrive on the scene in the midst of the 70 year period of desolation. The Two Witnesses arrive in the middle of this period of trial to cut this allotted time period short for the sake of the elect, so that the "fullness of the gentiles" may be saved when the Gospel is spread to the ends of the earth. "And this gospel of the kingdom will be proclaimed throughout the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come". (Matt 24:14)
Bearing these insights in mind, we can now back to discuss the significance of Joshua the High Priest and Zerubbabel in the interpretation of the Two Witnesses of Rev 11. First, it should be noted that symbolically speaking, the Roman Catholic pontiff is the best modern day equivalent of the Jewish High Priest, since for Catholics the pope is the Pontifex Maximus (Latin "high priest"). The Jewish High Priest was the top ranking priestly official in the Temple at Jerusalem, and was tasked with performing the sacrificial rituals in the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement. Given that the role of the High Priest in Judaism instantly brings to mind the role of the Bishop of Rome in Roman Catholicism, it is no great leap to suggest that Joshua the High Priest in the vision of Zechariah can be equated with a pope in an eschatological context.
There are also some parallels between Zerubbabel and the Great Monarch, given that he was the rightful heir to the lost kingdom of Judah. The Great Monarch of various private revelations is similarly described as the rightful heir to the now lost French Monarchy or the Holy Roman Empire - which ended with the abdication of Emperor Francis II in 1806. So given that the Two Witnesses of the Apocalypse are based on the coming of the High Priest of the Temple of Jerusalem and the heir to the lost Davidic kingdom after a period of desolation, this would further suggest that these two end-prophets are in fact the Angelic Pope and Great Monarch of Catholic prophecy - who are foretold to restore the Church from a state of apostasy before the coming of the Antichrist.

Zechariah's vision of Joshua opens with the rather striking image of Satan standing next to the High Priest, who is dressed in sullied vestments. The prophet sees Satan accusing the High Priest (representing Judah itself) of his sins, before he is redeemed by God and allowed to wear clean apparel:

Then he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him. And the LORD said to Satan, “The LORD rebuke you, O Satan! The LORD who has chosen Jerusalem rebuke you! Is not this a brand plucked from the fire?” Now Joshua was standing before the angel, clothed with filthy garments. And the angel said to those who were standing before him, “Remove the filthy garments from him.” And to him he said, “Behold, I have taken your iniquity away from you, and I will clothe you with pure vestments.” And I said, “Let them put a clean turban on his head.” So they put a clean turban on his head and clothed him with garments. And the angel of the LORD was standing by.
(Zech 3:1-5)

The central themes of this passage are repeated very closely in the description of the eschatological fall of Satan in the Apocalypse:

And I heard a loud voice in heaven, saying, “Now the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God and the authority of his Christ have come, for the accuser of our brothers has been thrown down, who accuses them day and night before our God.
(Rev 12:10)

In the Book of Revelation, the salvation, power and kingdom of God (i.e. the Second Pentecost)
arrives once Satan has been thrown down from his adversarial position in the heavenly court, and cast to the earth. In Zechariah's vision, Satan has been allowed to test Joshua - and his sins are visually represented for all to see in the soiled priestly vestments. But just as Satan is thrown down from heaven after accusing the Christian brethren day and night in Rev 12; Satan is rebuked in Zechariah's vision, and Joshua the High Priest is allowed to wear clean robes at the end of the Babylonian exile.

The Book of Zechariah describing Joshua the High Priest changing from garments soiled by the apostasy of Judah, to new clean vestments in the restoration at the end of the Babylonian exile, recalls several similar passages in the Book of Revelation which are related to themes of redemption and the Second Pentecost.

Yet you have still a few names in Sardis, people who have not soiled their garments, and they will walk with me in white, for they are worthy. The one who conquers will be clothed thus in white garments, and I will never blot his name out of the book of life. I will confess his name before my Father and before his angels.
(Rev 3:4-5)

I counsel you to buy from me gold refined by fire, so that you may be rich, and white garments so that you may clothe yourself and the shame of your nakedness may not be seen, and salve to anoint your eyes, so that you may see.
(Rev 3:18)

Then one of the elders addressed me, saying, “Who are these, clothed in white robes, and from where have they come?” I said to him, “Sir, you know.” And he said to me, “These are the ones coming out of the great tribulation. They have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.
(Rev 7:13-14)

Let us rejoice and exult
and give him the glory,
for the marriage of the Lamb has come,
and his Bride has made herself ready;
it was granted her to clothe herself
with fine linen, bright and pure”—
for the fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints.

(Rev 19:7-8)

As we have noted before, the theme of the Church being dressed in soiled robes is contained in the visions of St. Hildegard of Bingen:

In the year of our Lord’s incarnation 1170, I had been lying on my sick-bed for a long time when, fully conscious in body and in mind, I had a vision of a woman of such beauty that the human mind is unable to comprehend. She stretched in height from earth to heaven. Her face shone with exceeding brightness and her gaze was fixed on heaven. She was dressed in a dazzling robe of white silk and draped in a cloak, adorned with stones of great price. On her feet she wore shoes of onyx. But her face was stained with dust, her robe was ripped down the right side, her cloak had lost its sheen of beauty and her shoes had been blackened. And she herself, in a voice loud with sorrow, was calling to the heights of heaven, saying, ‘Hear, heaven, how my face is sullied; mourn, earth, that my robe is torn; tremble, abyss, because my shoes are blackened!’
(Letter to Werner von Kirchheim and his Priestly Community: PL 197, 269ff.).

The above prophetic vision of St. Hildegard appears to have been foremost in mind during Pope Benedict XVI's famous Way of the Cross sermon in 2005:

Lord, your Church often seems like a boat about to sink, a boat taking in water on every side. In your field we see more weeds than wheat. The soiled garments and face of your Church throw us into confusion. Yet it is we ourselves who have soiled them! It is we who betray you time and time again, after all our lofty words and grand gestures. Have mercy on your Church; within her too, Adam continues to fall. When we fall, we drag you down to earth, and Satan laughs, for he hopes that you will not be able to rise from that fall; he hopes that being dragged down in the fall of your Church, you will remain prostrate and overpowered. But you will rise again. You stood up, you arose and you can also raise us up. Save and sanctify your Church. Save and sanctify us all.

As Pope Benedict was well aware in alluding to the prophecies of St. Hildegard, her vision of the Church clad in soiled garments ends with the reversal of her fortunes, when she once again shines forth in her full radiant glory:

Behold, the feet of the aforementioned female image appeared to be white, giving out a brightness above that of the sun. I heard a voice from heaven saying to me: "Even though all things on earth are tending toward their end, so hardships and calamities is bowed down to its End, nevertheless, the Spouse of my Son, though much weakened in her children, will never be destroyed either by the heralds of the Son of Perdition or by the Destroyer himself, however much she will be attacked by them. At the End of time she will arise more powerful and more secure; she will appear more beautiful and shining so that she may go forth in this way more sweetly and more agreeably to the embraces of her Beloved.
(Scivias 3:11; Translated by B McGinn, Visions of the End, pp101-102)

The major difference between the visions of St. Hildegard and the Book of Zechariah is the manner in which the Church is personified. In St. Hildegard's visions the Church is represented by the woman in soiled robes who is restored to her former glory, while in Zech 3, the Church is personified in the Jewish High Priest. But if Joshua the High Priest represents the pope in Zechariah's vision, this opens up another intriguing possibility. The image of Satan standing next to Joshua in order to accuse him of his shortcomings is directly based on the story of Job - which in turn forms the primary basis of the vision of Pope Leo XIII. Could this explain why this particular private revelation was given directly to a pope? Usually private revelations are bestowed to visionaries from more humble origins, in keeping with Matt 12:25:  "At that time Jesus declared, “I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you have hidden these things from the wise and understanding and revealed them to little children; yes, Father, for such was your gracious will." The choice of the pope as the recipient of this vision appears to be a deliberate attempt to connect the imagery here of Satan accusing Job to its parallel verse in Zech 3. If the vision of Pope Leo XIII is related to Zechariah's vision of Joshua the High Priest and the story of Job, this would help to reinforce the point that the chief scriptural basis for the Two Witnesses of Rev 11 is intimately connected to the prophecies of the Angelic Pope. The Babylonian exile in Zech 3 and Joshua wearing soiled garments would thus represent the trials of Job, and correspond to the "little while" given to Satan in Rev 20 - which ultimately results in the Great Apostasy/abomination of desolation. But in the end, Satan is rebuked, and Joshua the High Priest - one of the olive trees standing before the Lord of all the earth, is allowed to adorn the pure vestments of the Second Pentecost.


Sr. Marianne Lorraine Trouve said...

Thank you, Emmett, for this wonderful analysis. You have woven all these things together in a very intriguing way. A couple things struck me:

1. That the last Holy Roman Emperor (who abdicated) was named Francis--an interesting connection in light of our new pope.
I looked up the house of Hapbsburg and there is one who was beatified: Blessed Charles I of Austria. He had 8 children and over 30 grandchildren, so presumably there is still a good bit of royals in the line who might be the Great Monarch.

2. The references to clean and soiled garments and robes are very interesting too. I wonder if somehow Our Lady of Mt Carmel could be connected here as well, since the scapular can be considered a "grace-garment." In March 2001, Pope John Paul wrote a letter to the Carmelites for the 750th anniversary of the bestowal of the scapular. In it he connects the scapular to devotion to Mary's Immaculate Heart:
"This intense Marian life . . . enables us to understand how the most genuine form of devotion to the Blessed Virgin, expressed by the humble sign of the Scapular, is consecration to her Immaculate Heart."

In light of the connection of the Angelic Shepherd with the Fatima prophecy and Mary's Immaculate Heart, this seems important.

elena maria vidal said...


Anonymous said...

As I was reading this post I started thinking about the significance of St Francis stripping himself of his garments. Also have you seen the painting of St. Francis defeating the antichrist?
There is also a painting of St Clare battling the four horsemen of the Apocalypse. What do you make of those paintings?


Anonymous said...

No doubt that you write well Emmett, and Sr. Lorraine's input is much welcomed. However, I am confused on one point. Assuming that Pope Francis is the Angelic Shepherd, then who is the Great Monarch? Sr. Lorraine mentioned the Hapsburgs. Hard to see a modern day "King" conquering the world nowadays though. And isn't the Angelic Shepherd supposed to be a miracle worker? Regardless, your posts are thought provoking, and if that was the intent, it is succeeding. Best regards.

Emmett O'Regan said...

I found the Francis link with the last of the Holy Roman Emperors interesting as well Sr. Lorraine. I didn't realise that Charles I of Austria was beatified. It's also intriguing that the events leading up to the demise of the House of Habsburg ultimately resulted in the First World War, with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914. And the First World War marks the start of the turmoil when Satan was unbound during his 100 years of greater power.

"And when the thousand years are ended, Satan will be released from his prison and will come out to deceive the nations that are at the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them for battle; their number is like the sand of the sea."
(Rev 20:7-8)

And of course, Our Lady of Fatima is intimately tied into the events of World War I. The Miracle of the Sun closely coincided with not only the rise of the Soviet Union, but also with the publication of the Balfour Declaration in November 1917, which would lead to the restoration of Israel in 1948. This was in large part facilitated by the consequences of the Battle of Megiddo in 1918. And as I argue in the below post, Mt. Carmel is the "mountain of Megiddo" - which is the translation of the Hebrew word Armageddon:

This all fits together rather neatly doesn't it?

Emmett O'Regan said...

Thanks for pointing out that wonderful painting Catherine! It's very prophetic, isn't it? I'll have to use it in a future post...
And of course it is the Two Witnesses who ultimately defeat the Antichrist, since it is through their martyrdom that the Beast of Revelation is destroyed at the appearance of the Second Coming of Christ:

"And if anyone would harm them, fire pours from their mouth and consumes their foes. If anyone would harm them, this is how he is doomed to be killed..."
(Rev 11:5)

There is a close parallel to this in the apocryphal Second Book of Esdras:

After this I looked, and behold, all who had gathered together against him, to wage war with him, were much afraid, yet dared to fight. And behold, when he saw the onrush of the approaching multitude, he neither lifted his hand nor held a spear or any weapon of war; but I saw only how he sent forth from his mouth as it were a stream of fire, and from his lips a flaming breath, and from his tongue he shot forth a storm of sparks. All these were mingled together, the stream of fire and the flaming breath and the great storm, and fell on the onrushing multitude which was prepared to fight, and burned them all up, so that suddenly nothing was seen of the innumerable multitude but only the dust of ashes and the smell of smoke. When I saw it, I was amazed.
(2Esdras 13:1-12)

And St. Paul uses similar language to describe the defeat of the Antichrist at the Second Coming of Christ:

"And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will kill with the breath of his mouth and bring to nothing by the appearance of his coming."
(2 Thess 2:8)

And this in turn is repeated in Rev 19:

"Then I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse! The one sitting on it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he judges and makes war. His eyes are like a flame of fire, and on his head are many diadems, and he has a name written that no one knows but himself. He is clothed in a robe dipped in blood, and the name by which he is called is The Word of God. And the armies of heaven, arrayed in fine linen, white and pure, were following him on white horses. From his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron. He will tread the winepress of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. On his robe and on his thigh he has a name written, King of kings and Lord of lords.
(Rev 19:11-16)

It is through the ministry of the Two Witnesses that the Bride is allowed to adorn pure, fine linen in preparation to meet the Groom. And their martyrdom in Jerusalem is met by a voice saying "Come up here!", along with a great earthquake:

"Then they heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, “Come up here!” And they went up to heaven in a cloud, and their enemies watched them. And at that hour there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell. Seven thousand people were killed in the earthquake, and the rest were terrified and gave glory to the God of heaven."
(Rev 11:12-13)

It is seems that this is the eschatological earthquake which occurs at the Second Coming of Christ:

Emmett O'Regan said...

Thanks Anon! I think the prophecies of the Great Monarch are among the most mysterious. He is almost always linked with the Angelic Pope, who anoints him as king. Given the current secular climate, it is hard to imagine the reestablishment of any of these defunct monarchies. But when the Second Pentecost begins to arrive, perhaps many countries will wish to right the wrongs of the various revolutions, and want to re-establish the Holy Roman Empire. But of course the pope has the power to anoint anyone as king any time he choses, so it doesn't necessarily have to happen by popular acclamation. It seems that the Great Monarch will remain hidden until the appointed time, but as I argue in the below post, it seems that he is connected in some way to the appearance of the "Great Sign" in Catholic Prophecy, much in the same way the Roman Empire was converted after Constantine's vision of the Labarum above the Sun:

I think the true realm that the Great Monarch will conquer is spiritual rather than spatial in nature. His victory will be over hearts and minds, rather than won on the battlefield.

Tom said...

There's a new TV series coming (US East coast) on the Habsburgs, that I'll be watching.

Jorge Bizarro said...


About this phrase: ""And when the thousand years are ended, Satan will be released from his prison and will come out to deceive the nations that are at the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them for battle; their number is like the sand of the sea."(Rev 20:7-8)"
I have been always quite unsatisfied with Bible foot-notes trying to shed some light on it and the famous episode of the ‘fist resurrection’. I personally don't accept that Satan has already been tied for 1000 years simply because he has been quite active, even as told to Father Gobbi on the message about the meaning of '666'. Satan until now has had the freedom to 'roam the Earth'. My idea of being cast in prison implies the loosing of the capability of wandering ‘forth and back’, from one place to the other. If this is the case, the principal Tribulation described in the Apocalypse of St. John would be quite before the last coming of Christ and Final Judgment, with another minor crisis after the millennium of peace.
What is your opinion on this?

Sr. Marianne Lorraine Trouve said...

Thanks for the additional info, Emmett, I will check out your other post about Megiddo.

I agree that it is hard to imagine a monarch ruling again in Europe today. But maybe if the world does go through some type of chastisement, today's political institutions will be completely shaken up.
Also, it's hard to ignore the crisis looming for Europe as its population ages and its social welfare nets are strained; it's really only a matter of time before the whole thing blows up (same for the US). I'm afraid what's been happening in Greece and Cyprus is only the prelude.

Emmett O'Regan said...

Hi Jorge,

The Church teaches that even when Satan is bound, he still has power to deceive and to harm the Church, and to come and go between heaven and earth. The Catechism goes into some detail on the "millennial" reign of Christ, which corresponds to the age of the Church:

"Though already present in his Church, Christ's reign is nevertheless yet to be fulfilled "with power and great glory" by the King's return to earth. This reign is still under attack by the evil powers, even though they have been defeated definitively by Christ's Passover."
(CCC 671)

What the Catechism is saying here is that the evil powers of Satan were defeated definitively by Christ's ministry and Passion, when he bound the "strong man" in order to allow the light of the Gospel to spread. Yet even though Satan has been bound by Christ's Death on the Cross, the evil powers still have the ability to attack Christ's kingdom, the Holy Church. Although the kingdom is already present in the Church, it is also a future hope which is still to come - both "now" and "not yet" - what theologians refer to as "inaugurated eschatology". The Catechism goes on to explain the mystery of why the Church still undergoes suffering, even though Satan's power has been bound by the ministry of Christ:

"Before his Ascension Christ affirmed that the hour had not yet come for the glorious establishment of the messianic kingdom awaited by Israel which, according to the prophets, was to bring all men the definitive order of justice, love and peace. According to the Lord, the present time is the time of the Spirit and of witness, but also a time still marked by "distress" and the trial of evil which does not spare the Church and ushers in the struggles of the last days."
(CCC 672)

So although Satan is bound, the trial of evil still does not spare the Church, which must endure suffering until the creation of the new heaven and the new earth after the end of the world:

"Until everything is subject to him, "until there be realized new heavens and a new earth in which justice dwells, the pilgrim Church, in her sacraments and institutions, which belong to this present age, carries the mark of this world which will pass, and she herself takes her place among the creatures which groan and travail yet and await the revelation of the sons of God." That is why Christians pray, above all in the Eucharist, to hasten Christ's return by saying to him: Maranatha! "Our Lord, come!"
(CCC 671)

The binding of Satan is about Satan attempting to prevent the spread of the Gospel. Once he was bound, Satan no longer had the power to obscure the truth of the Gospel, which facilitated the spread of Christianity. But Scripture teaches us that just before the end of the world, Satan would once again be unleashed, and he would be able to prevent the spread of the Gospel, resulting in the falling away of Christians during the Great Apostasy - which has already happened. I believe that Satan being unleashed to deceive mankind has already taken place, and that this corresponds to Pope Leo XIII's vision of the 100 years of Satan's greater power. This is why Christianity has taken a dramatic slump from the 20th century onwards.

If you read the com-box in the below post, there is a detailed discussion of this subject:

Sr. Marianne Lorraine Trouve said...

An impressive testimony from Cardinal Comastri about Pope Francis' visit to St Peter's tomb.

"Cardinal Comastri added:

Climbing back up the stairs and having reached the Clementine Chapel, Pope Francis became absorbed in prayer and repeated with a loud voice the three professions of Peter: “Lord, You are the Christ, Son of the Living God”; “Lord, to whom do we go? You have the words of eternal life”; “Lord, You know all things! You know that I love you!” At that moment, we had the distinct impression that the life of Peter rose out of centuries past and became present and living in the current Successor of the Apostle Peter."

Anonymous said...

The discussion of the Second Pentecost, a question, doesn't the Second Pentecost begin with the "Warning" of Garabandal?

"This reign on earth will be INAUGURATED by a “new” or “Second Pentecost” upon the ENTIRE earth—”upon ALL flesh.” In the words of Jesus to Venerable María Concepción Cabrera de Armida or “Conchita”:
The time has come to exalt the Holy Spirit in the world… I desire that this last epoch be consecrated in a very special way to this Holy Spirit… It is his turn, it is his epoch, it is the triumph of love in My Church, in the whole universe.—Fr. Marie-Michel Philipon, Conchita: A Mother’s Spiritual Diary, p. 195-196; excerpt from The Splendor of Creation, Rev. Joseph Innanuzzi, p.80
That is to say that Pentecost is not a one-time event, but a grace that will climax in a Second Pentecost when the Holy Spirit will “renew the face of the earth.”

I enjoy your blog Emmett, especially the messages from Heaven that are not well known, they are wonderful to read.


Anonymous said...

Hi everyone, I found the following article below. It is in regards to the Coptic Orthodox Patriarch and his strong intention to go and visit the Pope - more so "for to make the fraternal cooperation between the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church more and more intense". In know this is a bit off from the topic of the current theme but I found it of some interest. The link is below. Oh by the way I just wanted to say that I too have found this blog of great interest and enjoy the analysis. I only discovered this blog a few weeks ago - so I am playing catch up a bit. My name is Chris and I'm from Ireland too :-)

Emmett O'Regan said...

Hi Chris, cad é mar atá tú?

It's interesting that the Coptic Patriarch Pope Theodoros II is so keen to establish closer connections with Pope Francis. Especially given the connection of the Coptic Church with Our Lady of Zeitoun. The apparitions at Zeitoun appear to be connected in some way with Pope Paul VI returning the relics of St. Mark to Alexandria in 1968.
Pope Francis already seems to have the innate ability to reach out to people.

Anonymous said...

Dia duit, Tá mé go han-mhaith. Tá mé ó Dhún na nGall, in aice le Doire.

Thank you so much for the information, this is really interesting.


Keith Patton said...

Hey Emmett,
I'm a Protestant in RCIA who is almost officially converted. I'll be getting confirmed next month.

I was talking this week to a friend of mine from work who is from Romania. Her father is an Eastern Orthodox Priest. I told her that the Patriarch of Constantinople went to the Pope's mass, and that our Churches may finally be restored to unity in the future. She said she hoped not, because the Churches are too different in practice now (though not in theology). She pointed out how her father is a married priest, which wouldn't be possible if they reunited. (Funny how she knew reunification meant the Eastern Orthodox would become Catholic, rather than the other way around). I pointed out how there are already married Catholic priests in rites other than the Latin rite, which she wasn't aware of. I think she was also concerned about their liturgies.

Immediately after the conversation I was thinking that perhaps THIS is what the Holy Spirit had in mind with Vatican II? Prior to Vatican II, when the Church was following its traditional practices (Latin Mass and such), it would probably have been difficult for the Catholics to give up their Latin Mass or the Eastern Orthodox to do the same. The same goes for other practices like priestly celibacy between East/West.

Now it seems that Catholics and Orthodox could unite again, and we wouldn't have to get past huge traditional obstacles-- and I say tradition with a lower case "t." The Eastern Orthdox could have their own rites with their own liturgies and such, but still become part of the Catholic Church.

I'm not sure if this would have been possible prior to Vatican II, but it seems it's much more likely now?

Keith Patton said...

Btw, my comment was in connection to what you've been saying lately about Patriarch Bartholomew and the Coptic Patriach, and how we could possibly see reunification.

Jamey said...

Apologies to long time readers of this site, I will going across old stuff here.

Hi Keith,

I am interested in your views in what you have seen thus far in the Catholic Church and the modern liturgy (the Novus Ordo Mass). As others here I personally believe the Church is in the great general apostasy foretold in scripture but my belief is it stems largely from the abandonment of the traditional Latin Mass, "the Mass the saints lived and died for". I personally believe that the Church will not be a force again until it is available again on a wide scale basis.

Emeritus Pope Benedict XVI himself attributed the current falling away to be in "large part" to the near abrogation of the old Mass. It is more than just the Latin (although it is the Churches sacred language), but the rejection of the signs and symbols that communicated the reality of the sacrifice of the Mass; as well as the rejection of the sacred, holy and transcendent.

I don't think those things uniquely associated with traditional Latin Mass belong to the lower case t in tradition. At the same time if the Orthodox were to reunite like the Melkite and Ukrainian Catholics and as you mentioned I could envisage them retaining their liturgy whilst some adjustments may be necessary to truly reflect full Catholic doctrine. Moreover I have read the Orthodox wouldn't dare change their liturgy wholesale as unfortunately us Catholics have in the past 50 years to devastating effect, akin to an atomic bomb being dropped on the Church.

Jamey said...

The inspiring account of a former Protestant who converted to the Catholic Church and how after a period of bewilderment he dealt with the disarray and chaos with great humility whilst striving for sanctity.

Emmett O'Regan said...

Hi Keith,

That's great news! Cause for celebration! How did you get drawn towards Catholicism? Usually those who take the time to properly research Church history and Catholic theology naturally gravitate towards Roman Catholicism by themselves. I love hearing conversion stories...
When the East is once again reunited with the West, it will most likely follow the template laid down by Pope Benedict XVI's apostolic constitution Anglicanorum Coetibus, which led to the development of the Anglican Ordinariate. The Eastern Orthodox would be able to maintain their own liturgy and practices (such as married priests), much in the same way the Eastern Rite churches already do. But there will have to be compromises made on both sides in order for this to work properly. While the Eastern Orthodox will have to accept papal primacy (which they already do to a certain extent), the pope will have to let the East retain a certain degree of theological autonomy - much in the way their relationship worked prior to the Great Schism.

Anonymous said...

The Eastern Churches who have already been reunited with Rome already allow married priests. These are commonly called the Byzantine Catholic Churches or Greek Catholic Churches. Rome has no desire to change their tradition on that specific discipline and their ordination is ccnsidered valid by Rome. However,they follow the same rules of marriage as in the Orthodox...that have to be married as a deacon. If you progress to the next level, that is the priesthood, then you can't marry once you are ordained a priest. By the way, there are also many Orthodox priests who are NOT married. These are the ones who can becomes bishops.

Rome would not change this tradition because they are validly ordained as priests or deacons and those who have already returned to the Catholic Church are not bound under the marriage discipline of the Latin Rite.

The Anglicans however who have come into the church have come in under a special pastoral provision thanks to Pope Benedict allowing their priests to remain married but they must first be ordained in the Catholic Church as the Anglican Orders have been declared invalid (that is, not according to apostolic tradition). This is a pastoral leniancy so to speak towards them if any particular Anglican priest wants to remain a priest in the Anglican Rite. Some Anglican priests have chosen not to remain a priest and return to the lay state. It is discerned by each individual priest.

Since the Anglican orders have been declared not valid by Rome only those who come in as Anglican priests and who wish to remain priests are ordained in the Catholic Church. However, if an Anglican who has come into the Church who is NOT already a priest but feels called to the priesthood and wants to remain in the Anglican Rite he is NOT ALLOWED to marry. He must follow the discipline of the Roman Church in that regard. That's the way it is!

So in short, if the Eastern Rite Churches want to reunite with Rome their marriage tradtions would be honored and not changed by Rome.

Anonymous said...

Much of the discussion at Unveiling the Apocalypse is about private revelation. Heaven lets us know. Take the good from it. God speaks every day in the messages from Heaven.

It is confusing, for example, messages were
discussed here, they're very important and then comes the comment, stay away from the yet to be approved. Which is it? People don't have to but they should read the daily messages, they are a great help to strengthen your faith. God isn't silent. And...

Did I ask the wrong question recently? Everyone likes to feel they belong. I ask again.

The discussion of the Second Pentecost, a question, doesn't the Second Pentecost begin with the "Warning" of Garabandal?

"This reign on earth will be INAUGURATED by a “new” or “Second Pentecost” upon the ENTIRE earth—”upon ALL flesh.” In the words of Jesus to Venerable María Concepción Cabrera de Armida or “Conchita”:
The time has come to exalt the Holy Spirit in the world… I desire that this last epoch be consecrated in a very special way to this Holy Spirit… It is his turn, it is his epoch, it is the triumph of love in My Church, in the whole universe.—Fr. Marie-Michel Philipon, Conchita: A Mother’s Spiritual Diary, p. 195-196; excerpt from The Splendor of Creation, Rev. Joseph Innanuzzi, p.80
That is to say that Pentecost is not a one-time event, but a grace that will climax in a Second Pentecost when the Holy Spirit will “renew the face of the earth.”

I was reverted by private revelation, thanks,


Emmett O'Regan said...

Hi Mary,

Sorry, sometimes I get distracted by some comments and forget to answer other people's... I don't think anyone should stay away from unapproved private revelations - some of them are bound to be genuine. Just that they should be treated with a healthy dose of scepticism. I would warn anyone against putting too much scope into any unapproved private revelations, because sometimes this can damage someone's faith when things go wrong. Once alleged visionaries are exposed as frauds, this can make some of their followers become disillusioned with everything spiritual - including the Gospel itself.
I'm not really that sure about the authenticity of Garabandal - many of the things the "seers" predicted did not come to pass. This is why I don't go into this topic. I suppose we'll only know once and for all if Joey Lomangino dies without being cured...

Anonymous said...


Thank you for your reply. My pride, I am for sure, the Blessed Mother used a word in the messages...too "touchy."

If something in private revelation doesn't sound right, goes against the faith, we can and should disregard it and the messenger. Someone wrote at Joyce's Seers 2 yesterday, "wait and see" STILL on Maria of Divine Mercy even though Maria has called Pope Francis the False Prophet! A person's bias, partiality...

My heart is stuck on the Great Warning, it is so merciful, it fits what God would do. It will be painful if Joey dies and will show Garabandal isn't true but what of the Eucharistic miracle that happened to Conchita? How about St. Pio's approval of Garabandal? And St. Faustina, her messages about the Great Warning and saints before her, their messages? The Warning, in these moments, it is the beginning of the Second Pentecost.

There are current messages (Catholic and Protestant) sharing Revelation 6:15-17, using the same words in those verses to describe the Great Warning.


Emmett O'Regan said...

Hi Mary,

As far as I'm aware, everything that occurred at Garabandal can be put down to the preternatural, rather than the supernatural. Demons can materialise objects from thin air, change rosaries to gold, or cause levitation, etc. I don't mean to infer that the alleged seers were deliberately deceiving people, but there is the possibility that they were deceived themselves by the Devil. The Devil often appears in the guise of holy people, and even saints have been deceived by these cunning forms which Satan uses for his own purposes.
I'm not saying that it was definitely the Devil appearing to the children at Garabandal; merely that we should consider that this is a possibility, given the lack of evidence of the supernatural. This is another good reason to retain a healthy dose of scepticism towards any unapproved private revelations.
Also even saints can get it wrong sometimes, if they are going by their own intuition rather the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. Infallibility is only guaranteed when the pope issues a declaration ex cathedra on matters of faith and morals.

Jamey said...

"I'm not really that sure about the authenticity of Garabandal - many of the things the "seers" predicted did not come to pass. This is why I don't go into this topic. I suppose we'll only know once and for all if Joey Lomangino dies without being cured..."

Spot on.

"The Devil often appears in the guise of holy people, and even saints have been deceived by these cunning forms which Satan uses for his own purposes."

This seems the key - many modern "visionaries" receive a nice message that feels good to hear and then they seem to think every message thereafter is genuine. Even a holy man such as St John of the Cross sometimes couldn't tell the difference between heavenly or demonic. Padre Pio had a test, he use to ask the "angels" appearing to him to praise God and if demonic they would quickly turn ugly and leave.

Anonymous said...

Our prayers go up for everyone in Boston, especially those who died and were terribly injured. A doctor on scene witnessed in double numbers, perfectly innocent people needing amputations!

+ + +

St. Edmund (1540-1581)
“I have decreed a great day, in which a terrible Judgment will reveal the consciences of all men and they will be tested no matter what their religion may be. That day will be the day of change…”

Emmett and Jamey, you both know so much history and have the gift for writing. I may sound like I wish to argue, I don't know how to express my thoughts in writing in another way.

A person can reject Garabandal but how can you ignore all the prophecies describing the same, St. Edmund from long ago on up to our time, the description or reminder of the Warning (Rev 6:15-17) is stated every day in private revelation. I thought the main reason no one replied to my the Great Warning, the start of the Second Pentecost...because it is obvious the answer, everybody realizes reading the prophetic the Great Warning is the start of the Second Pentecost.

The question about Garabandal, how about the photographic witness to Conchita's Eucharistic miracle? Satan does not confirm the Real Presence. God is preparing the world, all Christians in prophecy. There are many Protestant messages getting them ready to accept the faith at the time of the Great Warning. One example ~

message to Chris Williams

March 11, 2013

“I now pour forth all that I am – into Mine One Body – as I promised you years ago”: Many years ago, and within many, many Prophecies and Visions, God told me that He would bring His people into ONE ACCORD, ONE PLACE, AND ONE TIME. At that time, I mentally looked at all the denominations, churches, and various religions across the world etc, and said to Him, “that will be the greatest miracle you will ever perform.” He said that I would live to see it."


Jamey said...

God bless Mary,

You didn't seem argumentative at all.

Generally I think it comes down to demons having knowledge on things that are going to unfold. They are probably aware of these ancient prophecies as well as having a certain level of insight into the future from the spheres they have been/are. This knowledge (genuine and that will come to pass) can be passed onto human beings with of course some falsehoods eventually thrown in to cause mischief. Often the false apparitions/visions will parrot genuine ones already approved but with a few "extras" thrown that will eventually cause harm. Invariably and tellingly multiple prophecies don't come to pass and this is why I personally don't believe Garabandal.

With Akita Japan - Sr Sasagawa was completely deaf and was promised her hearing back by Our Lady and indeed this was granted whilst being medically certified. Likewise some of Sr Lucia's warnings have come to pass although one was arguably after the fact.


"A doctor on scene witnessed in double numbers, perfectly innocent people needing amputations!"

These things so deeply shake us all here, I think it is easier for them who have passed on than those who have to endure life with a deformed maimed body with pain we couldn't or want to imagine. I hear that many children were involved, Lord help these people and their loved ones to cope with their unbelievable crosses.

Emmett O'Regan said...


I do believe in the appearance of a "great sign" etc. in relation to the Second Pentecost/illumination. It appears in approved private revelations as well. I wrote about this last in the below post:

The materialisation of objects is within the capabilities of preternatural (angelic or demonic) powers, and should never be seen as a definite sign of the involvement of the supernatural (which is solely from God). Miraculous healing is a good indicator of the supernatural, since demons can't truly heal. But they can mimic healing, by causing a malady in the first place, and then lifting their affliction - giving the false appearance of healing. The difficulty in establishing the origins of such phenomena is why it takes the Church so long to investigate these matters, and is reason for us to be wary of any apparitions that have not been approved.

Anonymous said...

Emmett, it seems you want to know the truth of the two olive trees. Indeed these are two servants of God and represent the two sons of the prophet Isaiah. Who they are or what they do is sealed to humanity. These two servants can unsealed the prophecy of Immanuel and by unsealing it will bring the final judgement to earth. They do not represent any religious Institution but what they represent is what God is doing to bring judgement. These two servants are anointed by God and not by humans. Even Jesus prophesied about these two servants when his followers asked him of the coming of the Son of Man: his response was that the sun would not give light and the moon would turn red. That's what they symbolize one the sun and the other moon and stars. The two great lights of creation. Only god can reveal or make you understand: Ask and you should receive.

spacentime said...
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spacentime said...
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spacentime said...

Two Olive Trees are two prophets in the end time. It's now~!
In Seoul, Korea, at 1955, just after the Korean war, the first olive tree appeared with the spiritual power as predicted in Rev.11:4~6.
Now, the Second Olive Tree is inviting you to 'his shadow' all over the world.
It's TRUE. Please pray for this word to Jesus and God. The Two Olive Trees is the Providence of God.
All Chritians should check this in

Anonymous said...

Hi Emmett,
In light of your recent tweet that references this post, are you suggesting the possibility that President Trump is one of the two witnesses? I found it especially interesting that Zerubbabel was the rightful heir to David's throne, but became *governor* of Judah instead because of the political reality of the time. If the eschatological world power that many assumed would be a united Europe is in fact the USA (as laid out in your book), could the GM likewise be not a literal monarchy ruling over a unified Europe, but rather an American president?
Happy New Year to you,

Emmett O'Regan said...

Hi KM!

I'm not suggesting that President Trump is one of the Two Witnesses. He's not Catholic, so this would probably rule him out. I wasn't thinking along those lines, but I can see where you are coming from. I was trying to draw attention to the fact that the recognition of Jerusalem as capital of Israel 70 years after its restoration ties in with a lot of the material I presented in the above post concerning the 70 years prophesied by Jeremiah. The timing of the accusation being levelled against the "Pontifex Maximius" in Satan's forensic role as the Adversary, which took place 70 years onwards from the rebirth of Israel, seems to be of some prophetic significance. Theoretically, the GM doesn't necessarily have to be a literal king, and might possibly be a political leader. But I have always been inclined towards the position that he will be crowned as Holy Roman Emperor, and as such, will be most likely of European royal descent.

Anonymous said...

Thanks, Emmett, your explanation helps very much.

Yes, if Trump were the GM he would have to have a major conversion. Not something that seems likely, although I guess anything is possible for God. Actually, if the GM were going to be an American president, I would put my money on Mike Pence, since he is devout, and has described himself as an evangelical Catholic... a likely-sounding description of someone who would work to unify all Christians and spread the Gospel.

But I do like your idea of a literal monarch in Europe. It reminds me of a meditation on the GM I read in the book Meditations on the Tarot by an anonymous author (now known to be Valentin Tomberg). Are you familiar with it? Not what the title might sound like! Subtitled “a journey into Christian hermeticism” the author is devout Roman Catholic, with an afterword by Cardinal Hans Urs von Balthasar. The author has obvious brilliance (reminds me of your writing) and although he has a few screwy ideas, most of it is solidly Catholic. You might check it out (in your copious free time!)